Government Accountability Office Reports

GPRA, Managing for Results, and Use of Evidence


GAO One-Stop Landing Page for Leading Practices in Managing for Results

Selected GAO Reports on these Topics (1992 to 2023):

GPRA 1993 Implementation

Performance Measurement:  An Important Tool in Managing for Results. GAO/T-GGD-92-35. (May 5, 1992) (Charles Bowsher)

Program Performance Measures: Federal Agency Collection and Use of Performance Data, GAO/GGD-92-65 (May 1992)

Improving Government: Measuring Performance and Acting on Proposals for Change. GAO/GGD-93-14. (March 23, 1993) (Charles Bowsher)

Managing for Results: Critical Actions for Measuring Performance. GAO/T-GGD/AIMD-95-187. (June 20, 1995) (Johnny Finch and Christopher Hoenig).

GPRA Performance Reports. GAO/GGD-96-66R. (February 14, 1996).

Executive Guide: Effectively Implementing the Government Performance and Results Act. GAO/GGD-96-118. (June 1996).

GPRA:  Managerial Accountability and Flexibility Pilot Did Not Work as Intended. GAO/GGD-97-36 (April 1997).

Managing for Results:  Enhancing the Usefulness of GPRA Consultations Between Executive Branch and Congress. GAO/T-GGD-97-56. (March 10, 1997) (F. Nye Stevens).

Managing for Results:  Analytic Challenges in Measuring Performance. GAO/HEHS/GGD-97-138. (May 1997).

The Government Performance and Results Act: 1997 Governmentwide Implementation Will Be Uneven. GGD-97-109. (June 1997).

Managing for Results: The Statutory Framework for Performance-Based Management and Accountability, GAO/GGD/AIMD-98-52(January 1998).

Managing for Results: Agencies’ Annual Performance Plans Can Help Address Strategic Planning Challenges, GAO/GGD-98-44(January 1998)

Managing for Results: Observations on Agencies’ Strategic Plans, GAO/T-GGD-98-66 (February 12, 1998).

Managing for Results: An Agenda to Improve the Usefulness of Agencies’ Annual Performance Plans, GAO/GGD/AIMD-98-228(September 1998).

The Results Act:  Assessment of the Governmentwide Performance Plan for Fiscal Year 1999. GAO/AIMD/GGD-98-159. (September 1998).

Managing for Results: Measuring Program Results That Are Under Limited Federal Control, GAO/GGD-99-16 (December 1998).

Agency Performance Plans: Examples of Practices That Can Improve Usefulness to Decisionmakers, GAO/GGD/AIMD-99-69 (February 1999)

Managing for Results:  Challenges Agencies Face in Producing Credible Performance Information. GAO/GGD-00-52. (February 2000).

Managing for Results: Continuing Challenges to Effective GPRA Implementation. GAO/T-GGD-00-178. (July 20, 2000) (J. Christopher Mihm).

Managing for Results:  Federal Managers’ Views Show Need for Ensuring Top Leadership Skills. GAO-01-127. (October 2000).

Determining Performance and Accountability Challenges and High Risks. GAO-01-159SP. (November 2000).

Results-Oriented Government:  Using GPRA to Address 21st Century Challenges, GAO-03-1166T  (September 18, 2003) (David M. Walker).

Results-Oriented Government: GPRA Has Established a Solid Foundation for Achieving Greater Results, GAO-04-38 (March 2004).

Congressional Oversight: FAA Case Study Shows How Agency Performance, Budgeting, and Financial Information Could Enhance Oversight, GAO-06-378 (March 2006).

Streamlining Government: Opportunities Exist to Strengthen OMB’s Approach to Improving Efficiency, GAO-10-394 (May 2010).

Strategic Plans

Agencies’ Strategic Plans Under GPRA: Key Questions to Facilitate Congressional Review. GAO/GGD-10.1.16 (May 1997).

Managing for Results: Critical Issues for Improving Federal Agencies’ Strategic Plans, GAO/GGD-97-180 (September 1997)

Managing for Results: Observations on OMB’s September 1997 Strategic Plan, GAO/T-AIMD/GGD-98-10, (October 6, 1997)

Managing for Results: Building on Agencies’ Strategic Plans to Improve Federal Management, T-GGD/AIMD-98-29 (October 1997)

Managing for Results: Observations on Agencies’ Strategic Plans, GAO/T-GGD-98-66 (February 12, 1998) (Christopher Mihm)

Linking to Individual Performance and Culture

Performance Management: Aligning Employee Performance with Agency Goals at Six Results Act Pilots, GAO/GGD-98-162(September 1998)

Managing for Results: Emerging Benefits from Selected Agencies’ Use of Performance Agreements, GAO-01-115 (October 2000)

Managing for Results: Federal Managers’ Views on Key Management Issues Vary Widely Across Agencies, GAO-01-592 (May 2001)

Performance Management Systems: IRS’s Systems for Frontline Employees and Managers Align with Strategic Goals but Improvements Can Be Made, GAO-02-804 (July 2002)

Results-Oriented Cultures: Creating a Clear Linkage between Individual Performance and Organizational Success, GAO-03-488 (March 2003).

Human Capital: Aligning Senior Executives’ Performance with Organizational Results Is an Important Step Towards Governmentwide Transformation. GAO-06-1125T. (September 26, 2006) (Brenda Farrell)

Government Performance: Strategies for Building a Results-Oriented and Collaborative Culture in the Federal Government, GAO-09-1011T (September 24, 2009) (Bernice Steinhardt).

Collaboration and Coordination

Managing for Results: Barriers to Interagency Coordination, GAO/GGD-99-106 (March 2000)

Managing for Results: Key Considerations for Implementing Interagency Collaborative Mechanisms. GAO-12-1022 (September 2012).

Managing for Results: Implementation Approaches Used to Enhance Collaboration in Interagency Groups. GAO-14-220 (February 2014).

Government Performance Management: Leading Practices to Enhance Interagency Collaboration and Address Crosscutting Challenges, GAO-23-105520 (May 24, 2023)

Using Performance Data to Inform Management Decisions

Managing for Results: Views on Ensuring the Usefulness of Agency Performance Information.  GAO/GGD-00-35 (January 2000).

Managing for Results: Using GPRA to Assist Oversight and Decisionmaking. GAO-01-872T (June 19, 2001) (J. Christopher Mihm)

Results-Oriented Government: Using GPRA to Address 21st Century Challenges. GAO-03-1166T.  (September 18, 2003) (David Walker).

Results-Oriented Government: GPRA Has Established a Solid Foundation for Achieving Greater Results. GAO-04-38. (March 2004).

Managing For Results: Enhancing Agency Use of Performance Information for Management Decision Making. GAO-05-927.  (September 2005).

Congressional Oversight: FAA Case Study Shows How Agency Performance, Budgeting, and Financial Information Could Enhance Oversight. GAO-06-378. (March 2006).

HUD and Treasury Programs: More Information on Leverage Measures’ Accuracy and Linkage to Program Goals Is Needed in Assessing Performance. GAO-08-136. (January 2008).

Government Performance: Lessons Learned for the Next Administration on Using Performance Information to Improve Results. GAO-08-1026T. (July 24, 2008) (Bernice Steinhardt).

Results-Oriented Management: Strengthening Key Practices at FEMA and Interior Could Promote Greater Use of Performance Information. GAO-09-676. (August 2009).

Government Performance: Strategies for Building a Results-Oriented and Collaborative Culture in the Federal Government. GAO-09-1011T, (September 24, 2009) (Bernice Steinhardt).

Managing for Results: Selected Agencies Need to Take Additional Efforts to Improve Customer Service. GAO-15-84 (October 2014).

Managing for Results: Government-wide Actions Needed to Improve Agencies’ Use of Performance Information in Decision Making, GAO-18-609SP (September 2018).

Evidence-Based Policymaking: Survey Results Suggest Increased Use of Performance Information across the Government, GAO-22-103910 (November 2021)

Performance Budgeting 

Performance Budgeting: Initial Experiences Under the Results Act Linking Plans with Budgets, GAO/AIMD/GGD-99-67 (April 1999).

Performance Budgeting: Fiscal Year 2000 Progress in Linking Plans with Budgets. GAO/AIMD-99-239R. (August 18, 1999).

Results-Oriented Budget Practices in Federal Agencies. GAO-01-1084SP (August 2001)

Managing for Results: Agency Progress in Linking Performance Plans with Budgets and Financial Statements. GAO-02-236. (January 2002)

IRS’s Budget Justification: Options for Structure and Content, GAO-02-711R (July 8, 2002).

Performance Budgeting:  Opportunities and Challenges, GAO-02-1106T (September 19, 2002) (David Walker).

Managing for Results: Efforts to Strengthen the Link Between Resources and Results at the Administration on Children and Families. GAO-03-09. (December 2002).

Managing for Results: Efforts to Strengthen the Link Between Resources and Results at the Veterans Administration. GAO-03-10.(December 2002).

Managing for Results: Efforts to Strengthen the Link Between Resources and Results at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, GAO-03-258 (December 2002).

Performance Budgeting: Observations on the Use of OMB’s Program Assessment Rating Tool for the Fiscal Year 2004 Budget. GAO-04-174. (January 2004).

Coast Guard: Relationship Between Resources Used and Results Achieved Needs to Be Clearer, GAO-04-432 (March 2004)

21st Century Challenges: Performance Budgeting Could Help Promote Necessary Reexamination. GAO-05-709T. (June 14, 2005) (David Walker).

Performance Budgeting: States’ Experiences Can Inform Federal Efforts. GAO-05-215. (February 2005)

Performance Budgeting:  Efforts to Restructure Budgets to Better Align Resources with Performance, GAO-05-117SP (February 2005)

GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 Implementation

Government Performance:  GPRA Modernization Act Provides Opportunities to Help Address Fiscal, Performance, and Management Challenges. GAO-11-466T. (March 16, 2011) (Gene Dodaro).

Managing for Results: Opportunities for Congress to Address Government Performance Issues, GAO-12-215R (December 9, 2011).

Managing for Results: A Guide for Using the GPRA Modernization Act to Help Inform Congressional Decision Making, GAO-12-621SP(June 2012)

Managing for Results: Agencies Have Elevated Performance Management Leadership Roles, but Additional Training Is Needed, GAO-13-356 (April 2013)

Managing for Results: Executive Branch Should More Fully Implement the GPRA Modernization Act to Address Pressing Governance Challenges, GAO-13-518 (June 2013)

Reexamining Regulations: Agencies Often Made Regulatory Changes, but Could Strengthen Linkages to Performance Goals, GAO-14-268 (April 2014).

Managing for Results: Agencies’ Trends in the Use of Performance Information to Make Decisions, GAO-14-747 (September 2014).

Managing for Results: Implementation of GPRA Modernization Act Has Yielded Mixed Progress in Addressing Pressing Governance Challenges, GAO-15-819 (September 2015)

Managing for Results: Agencies Need to Fully Identify and Report Major Management Challenges and Actions to Resolve Them in Their Agency Performance Plans GAO-16-510 (June 2016)

Tax Expenditures: Opportunities Exist to Use Budgeting and Agency Performance Processes to Increase Oversight, GAO-16-622 (July 2016)

Managing for Results: Further Progress Made in Implementing the GPRA Modernization Act, but Additional Actions Needed to Address Pressing Governance Challenges, GAO-17-775 (September 2017)

Cross-Agency Priority Goals, Agency Priority Goals, and Quarterly Reviews

Managing for Results: GAO’s Work Related to the Interim Crosscutting Priority Goals under the GPRA Modernization Act, GAO-12-620R (May 31, 2012)

Managing for Results:  Data-Driven Performance Reviews Show Promise but Agencies Should Explore How to Involve Other Relevant Agencies, GAO-13-228 (February 2013)

Managing For Results: Agencies Should More Fully Develop Priority Goals under the GPRA Modernization Act, GAO-13-174 (Apr 19, 2013).

Managing for Results: OMB Should Strengthen Reviews of Cross-Agency Goals, GAO-14-526 (June 2014)

Managing for Results: Enhanced Goal Leader Accountability and Collaboration Could Further Improve Agency Performance, GAO-14-639 (July 2014)

Managing for Results: Agencies Report Positive Effects of Data-Driven Reviews on Performance but Some Should Strengthen Practices, GAO-15-579 (July 7, 2015)

Managing for Results: Greater Transparency Needed in Public Reporting on the Quality of Performance Information for Selected Agencies’ Priority Goals, GAO-15-788 (September 2015)

Managing for Results:  OMB Improved Implementation of Cross-Agency Priority Goals, But Could Be More Transparent About Measuring Progress, GAO-16-509 (May 2016)

Government Performance Management: Key Considerations for Implementing Cross-Agency Priority Goals and Progress Addressing GAO Recommendations, GAO-21-104704 (September 2021)

Government Performance Management: Actions Needed to Improve Transparency of Cross-Agency Priority Goals, GAO-23-106354 (April 2023)

Program Inventories and

Managing for Results: Leading Practices Should Guide the Continued Development of, GAO-13-517 (June 2013)

Government Efficiency and Effectiveness: Inconsistent Definitions and Information Limit the Usefulness of Federal Program Inventories, GAO-15-83 (October 2014) Long-Term Strategy Needed to Improve Website Usability. GAO-16-693. (August 2016).

Federal Programs: Information Architecture Offers a Potential Approach for Development of an Inventory, GAO-17-739 (September 2017)

Strategic Reviews

Managing for Results: Practices for Effective Agency Strategic Reviews, GAO-15-602 (Washington, D.C.: July 29, 2015). 

Managing for Results: Selected Agencies’ Experiences in Implementing Strategic Reviews, GAO-17-740R (September 7, 2017)

Use of Evaluation, Data, and Evidence to Improve Federal Programs

GAO One-Stop Landing Page on Using Data and Evidence to Improve Federal Programs

Selected GAO Reports on the Topic (2002 – 2021):

Performance Reporting: Few Agencies Reported on the Completeness and Reliability of Performance Data. GAO-02-372 (April 2002).

Program Evaluation: An Evaluation Culture and Collaborative Partnerships Help Build Agency Capacity. GAO-03-454. (May 2003).

Program Evaluation: OMB’s PART Reviews Increased Agencies’ Attention to Improving Evidence of Program Results. GAO-06-67. (October 2005)

Performance Budgeting: PART Focuses Attention on Program Performance, but More Can Be Done to Engage Congress. GAO-06-28. (October 2005).

Program Evaluation:  OMB’s PART Reviews Increased Agencies’ Attention to Improving Evidence of Program Results. GAO-06-67.(October 2005).

Program Evaluation: A Variety of Rigorous Methods Can Help Identify Effective Interventions. GAO-10-30. (November 2009).

Performance Measurement and Evaluation: Definitions and Relationships. GAO-11-646SP. (May 2011).

Program Evaluation: Experienced Agencies Follow a Similar Model for Prioritizing Research. GAO-11-176.  (January 2011).

Designing Evaluations: 2012 Revision. GAO-12-208G. (January 2012).

Program Evaluation: Some Agencies Reported that Networking, Hiring, and Involving Program Staff Help Build Capacity, GAO-15-25(November 2014).

Pay for Success: Collaboration Among Federal Agencies Would Be Helpful as Governments Explore New Financing Mechanisms. GAO-15-646. (September 2015).

Tiered Evidence Grants: Opportunities Exist to Share Lessons from Early Implementation and Inform Future Federal Efforts, GAO-16-818. (September 2016). 

DATA Act: OMB and Treasury Have Issued Additional Guidance and Have Improved Pilot Design but Implementation Challenges Remain. GAO-17-156. (December 2016).

Evidence-Based Policymaking: Selected Agencies Coordinate Activities, but Could Enhance Collaboration, GAO-20-119 (December 2019).

DATA Act: OIGs Reported That Quality of Agency-Submitted Data Varied, and Most Recommended improvements, GAO-20-540 (July 2020).

Program Evaluation: Key Terms and Concepts. GAO-21-404SP (March 2021).

Evidence-Based Policymaking: Survey Data Identify Opportunities to Strengthen Capacity across Federal Agencies. GAO 21-536 (July 2021).