IBM Center for Business of Government – Improving Government Performance

List of IBM Center for The Business of Government Reports on

Improving Government Performance, 2000-2011

From Data to Decisions: The Power of Analytics

Partnership of Public Service (2011)

A number of federal agencies were surveyed to identify best practices in data analytics and performance management.  This report points to the importance of analytics in measuring agency performance.  The authors emphasize that data collection is only the first step in turning data into usable information — moving from data points to decision points.

A Guide to Data-Driven Performance Reviews

Harry Hatry, Elizabeth Davies (2011)

This report examines federal agencies that are using data-driven performance reviews to improve agency effectiveness and efficiency.  It draws from practices of agencies, including state and local governments.  It serves as a “how to” guide for setting up and running data-driven performance reviews.  It also lays out who needs to be involved, how to organize the meetings, what kinds of performance information should be collected, how to run the meetings, and how to follow up afterwards.

Performance Reporting: Insights from International Practice

Richard Boyle (2009)

In this report, Richard Boyle provides cross-national comparative data on good and bad practices in performance reporting, shares good practices across these countries, assesses the state of performance reporting, and provides directly relevant assistance to program managers in both central and line agencies

Moving Toward Outcome-Oriented Performance Measurement Systems

Dr. Kathryn Kloby, Dr. Kathe Callahan (2009)

The report provides examples of outcome-oriented performance measurement systems in place around the country, describes findings from these case studies, and offers practical recommendations on how to develop useful outcome-oriented measurement systems that other communities – sponsored by either government or community indicator projects – can act.

Performance Management Recommendations for the New Administration

Shelley H. Metzenbaum (2009)

The author’s premise is that performance information should be used to improve performance, not just report performance for accountability purposes. She offers a series of recommendations to the President, the Office of Management and Budget, new agency heads, and the Performance Improvement Council on ways to make performance information a vital element of success.

Five Actions to Enhance State Legislative Use of Performance Information

Judy Zelio (2008)

Judy Zelio identifies five specific actions that state agencies can take to provide performance information that legislators will see as useful, such as ensuring that executive branch, budget staff provide performance information for legislative use that “emphasizes policy results rather than administrative measures.”  This report offers concrete examples of what executive branch agencies in leading states have done. It also provides a pocket card guide for state legislators to use when asking agencies about their performance during budget and program reviews.  Organizational Transformation


Strategic Use of Analytics in Government

Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa, Thomas H. Davenport (2008)

Governments use analytics (often described as “business intelligence”) to enable and drive their strategies and performance in an ever more volatile and turbulent environment.  This report, explores several important applications of analytics in government agencies and develops an assessment framework for those that either have not yet embarked on the analytics journey or are still in the early stages.

What All Mayors Would Like to Know About Baltimore’s CitiStat Performance Strategy

Robert D. Behn (2007)

This report summarizes and presents the questions most frequently posed to citistat staff and to Mayor Martin O’Malley.  The report explains how citistat should be viewed as a management strategy rather than a management system.  When viewed as a management strategy, Dr. Behn argues, the program can replicate and customize each mayor’s individual needs and priorities.  A key insight is that there is no single, right approach as to how to develop a successful management performance and accountability structure.  Success depends heavily on clear goals, committed management, and persistent follow-up.

The Philadelphia SchoolStat Model

Mary Shelley, Christopher Patusky, Leigh Botwink (2007)

Philadelphia’s SchoolStat is a case study of the adaptation of a successful management model, CompStat, developed over a decade ago by New York City’s Police Department.  The model has since been adapted by various city agencies in New York; by cities, such as Baltimore’s CitiStat; and by some state governments, such as Maryland’s new StateStat.

Managing for Better Performance: Enhancing Federal Performance Management Practices

Howard Risher, Charles H. Fay (2007)

This report reviews the history of performance management efforts within the federal government and discusses the successes, challenges, and failures over the years.  In addition, the report offers insights from other performance management experiences in both public and private sector organizations.  The authors describe differences between private and public sector performance management practices, as well as present a comparative analysis of corporate and non-corporate use of good management practices.

Using the Balanced Scorecard: Lessons Learned from the U.S. Postal Service and the Defense Finance and Accounting Service

Nicholas J. Mathys, Kenneth Thompson (2006)

This report features two large federal agencies that adapted the balanced scorecard approach to their operations and have used it for more than five years to drive improved performance.  The challenge, the authors note, is not creating a scorecard; it’s getting its elements to align and link to each other and to the operations of the agency.

Performance Accountability: The Five Building Blocks and Six Essential Practices

Shelley H. Metzenbaum (2006)

In this report, Metzenbaum sets forth five building blocks – tools and techniques for constructing a good measurement system for an organization.  She describes six practices that leaders need to use to make appropriately designed systems work properly.  Metzenbaum emphasizes the importance of constructive feedback and the use of constant back-and-forth discussions in improving performance based on metrics.

Implementing OMB’s Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART): Meeting the Challenges of Integrating Budget and Performance

John B. Gilmour (2006)

Professor Gilmour’s report examines OMB’s PART initiative from a practical standpoint: How have federal agencies dealt with the requirements of PART?  What strategies have they employed to be successful?  What challenges do they face?  His report highlights four challenges that confront both agencies and OMB as they work to complete assessments of all 1,000 programs and describes approaches that agencies are taking to meet these challenges.

Performance Budgeting: How NASA and SBA Link Costs and Performance

Lloyd A. Blanchard (2006)

Dr. Blanchard’s report begins with a description of the statutory and conceptual foundations of costing requirements.  He follows with a framework for integrating costs and performance.  He then tells the story of how two very different federal agencies successfully met the President’s Management Agenda’s performance costing requirements.

Moving from Outputs to Outcomes: Practical Advice from Governments Around the World

Burt Perrin (2006)

Perrin’s report provides substantial evidence that countries are moving toward a results-oriented approach in a wide variety of government contexts.  Until recently, the process and performance of government has been judged largely on inputs, activities, and outputs.  Based on a two-day forum sponsored by the World Bank and the IBM Center involving officials from six developed and six developing countries Perrin identifies state-of-the-art practices and thinking that go beyond the current literature.

Pay for Performance: A Guide for Federal Managers

Howard Risher (2004)

This report provides timely advice to federal managers involved in the planning and implementation of pay-for-performance systems.  It examines arguments for and against pay for performance, reviews various approaches to pay for performance, and discusses the challenge of implementing such systems.  It also provides a framework for developing and evaluating specific pay-for-performance policies and management practices.

Staying the Course: The Use of Performance Measurement in State Governments

Julia Melkers and Kathrine Willoughby  (2004)

This report provides an overview of performance management at the state level, and how state budgeting systems have evolved to now incorporate measurement of program activities and results. It describes why performance initiatives continue to be touted by both legislatures and central management in the states.

The report describes which components of performance measurement and performance-related initiatives have been most useful in the states. The authors also identify key trends. First, the integration of performance-based budgeting efforts has occurred along with other public management initiatives such as strategic planning. Second, states now appear prepared to stay the course and continue to enhance their performance management systems for broader application. M

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In addition to these reports, there are magazine articles and blogs by IBMCenter staff on this topic, such as:

GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 Explained

John M. Kamensky (2011)

Congress passed – and President Obama signed — legislation updating the 18-year-old Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA).  The update is based on more than 15 years of experience – documented through numerous GAO reports that culminated in a 2004 overarching assessment.  This experience included both the evolution of agency practices as well as increased access to information and collaboration via the Internet.

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In addition, the IBMCenter produced two books in the 2000 – 2006 periods on performance management that drew on reports published during that time.  The books are out of print but where we used material from an IBMCenter report to produce a chapter, the web links below go directly to those reports.

Managing for Results: 2005

Table of Contents

Chapter One: From “Useful Measures” to “Measures Used” by John M. Kamensky, Albert Morales, and Mark A. Abramson

Part I: Understanding the Potential of Using Performance Information

Chapter Two: Performance Management for Career Executives: A “Start Where You Are, Use What You Have” Guide  by Chris Wye

Chapter Three: Linking Performance and Budgeting: Opportunities in the Federal Budget Process  by Philip G. Joyce

Chapter Four: E-Reporting: Using Managing-for-Results Data to Strengthen Democratic Accountability by Mordecai Lee

Chapter Five: How Federal Programs Use Outcome Information: Opportunities for Federal Managers by Harry P. Hatry, Elaine Morley, Shelli B. Rossman, and Joseph S. Wholey

Part II: Lessons in the Use of Performance Information

Chapter Six: Strategies for Using State Information: Measuring and Improving Program Performance by Shelley H. Metzenbaum

Chapter Seven: Setting Performance Targets: Lessons from the Workforce Investment Act System by Carolyn J. Heinrich

Chapter Eight: Collaboration and Performance Management in Network Settings: Lessons from Three Watershed Governance Efforts by Mark T. Imperial

Chapter Nine: Using a Performance Budgeting System: Lessons from the Texas Experience by Joe Adams

Chapter Ten: The Baltimore CitiStat Program: Performance and Accountability by
Lenneal J. Henderson

Managing for Results:  2002

Table of Contents

Chapter 1:  Managing for Results: Cutting Edge Challenges Facing Government Leaders in 2002, by John M. Kamensky and Mark A. Abramson

Chapter 2:  Corporate Strategic Planning in Government: Lessons from the United States Air Force by Colin Campbell

Chapter 3:  The Challenge of Developing Cross-Agency Measures: A Case Study of the Office of National Drug Policy by Patrick J. Murphy and John Carnevale

Chapter 4:  Using Evaluation to Support Performance Management: A Guide for Federal Executives by Kathryn E. Newcomer and Mary Ann Scheirer

Chapter 5:  Managing for Outcomes: Milestone Contracting in Oklahoma by Peter Frumkin

Chapter 6:  Using Performance Data for Accountability: The New York City Police Department’s Compstat Model of Police Management by Paul E. O’Connell

Chapter 7:  The Potential of the Government Performance and Results Act as a Tool to Manage Third-Party Government by David G. Frederickson